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RadioPlanner 3.0

Mobile and Broadcast Network Planning Software

User Manual

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Propagation models

In RadioPlanner 3.0, you can select from several propagation models to perform coverage predictions. You can also specify time and location variability statistics and prediction confidence margin.


Available propagation models:


-    ITU-R P.1812-6 model
-    Longley-Rice (ITM) model v 1.2.2
-    Okumura-Hata
-    3GPP TR 38.901
-    ITU-R P.1546-6 model
-    Combined ITU-R P.528-3 + P.526-14 model (for air-to-ground radio only)

 

The main parameters for each of the propagation models are shown in the table below.

Propagation model

Frequency Range

Use DTM

Use Clutter

ITU-R P.1812-6

30 MHz to 6 GHz

+

+

Longley-Rice (ITM) v 1.2.2

20 MHz to 20 GHz

+

+

Okumura-Hata

100 MHz to 1.5 GHz

-

+

3GPP TR 38.901

500 MHz to 100 GHz

+ 1

-

ITU-R P.1546-6

30 MHz to 3 GHz

+

+

ITU-R P.528-3 + P.526-14

125 MHz to 15.5 GHz

+

+

1 Used to determine LOS/NLOS path status only

ITU-R P.1812-6 Propagation Model

The ITU-R P.1812-6 Propagation Model is described in detail in Recommendation ITU-R P.1812-6 (09/2021) “A path-specific propagation prediction method for point-to-area terrestrial services in the frequency range 30 MHz to 6 000 MHz.” 


This model takes into account factors such as diffraction loss on path profile obtained from DTM data; impact of local surrounding obstacles determined by clutter model; and local and time variability of received radio signal.

ITU-R P.1812-6 Propagation Model__.png

ITU-R P.1812-6 Propagation Model

Location, %

Location percentage (50%-99%, typically 50%, 90% or 95%) indicates that a given power level will be exceeded in at least that percentage of locations for similar propagation paths. Set 50% if you want to completely exclude the influence of Location variability.

Time , %

By choosing a time percentage (50%-99%, typically 50%, 90% or 95%), the calculated received power values are the power levels that will be exceeded at least that percentage of time. Set 50% if you want to completely exclude the influence of Time variability.

Confidence margin, dB

Since the received power level calculations are estimates, the prediction margin lets you specify a safety margin in dB so that you can be more confident your signal level estimate is indeed above the specified signal level.

σLN, dB

Lognormal large-scale (shadow) fading standard deviation, dB. This value depends on the digital terrain model (DTM) resolution and carrier frequency. Typical value 2-5 dB for modern DTMs.

σR, dB

Small-scale fading (Rayleigh) standard deviation, dB. Typically 7.5 dB

σt, dB

Time variability standard deviation, dB. At distances up to 50 km, the σt usually varies for between 2-3 dB (Land), and up to 9 dB for the Sea. See Table 3 in Recommendation ITU-R P.1406-2 "Propagation effects relating to terrestrial land mobile and broadcasting services in the VHF and UHF bands"

Fade margin, dB

Fade margin, dB. Calculated total fade margin depending on location and time variability, as well as the confidence margin.

Clutter loss


Clutter loss is calculated according to Recommendation ITU-R P.1812-6 and depends on factors such as antenna height of the mobile unit, frequency, typical width of streets, average height of clutter, and clutter type.


The frequency and antenna height for each of the two types of mobile units (portable and mobile) are set in the Network menu. The typical width of streets is 27m (in accordance with ITU-R P.1812-6). The clutter model determines the type of obstacles at each point.

Add clutter loss

Add clutter loss to path loss

Network type

Select the network for which the clutter loss applies

Use clutter attenuation according whith Rec. ITU-R P.1812

Calculate losses in clutter using Rec. ITU-R P.1812-6 formulas

Average heights for different types of clutter are set in the Geo Data menu. The default clutter height in Rec. ITU-R P.1812-6:

Clutter Type

Color

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Open / Rural

Water

Trees / Forest

Suburban

Urban

Dense Urban

Open areas in forest

Open areas in suburban

Open areas in uburban

2023-06-29_10-37-43.png

Clutter height (m)

7

0

15

10

15

20

7

5

7

You can also manually set clutter loss for each clutter type based on your own data by entering the losses into the table.

ITU-R P.1546-6 Model

The model is based on recommendation ITU-R P.1546-6 (08/2019): "Method for point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services in the frequency range 30 MHz to 4000 MHz"


Model ITU-R P.1546-6 is empirical because it is based on experimentally obtained field strength curves versus distance for different frequencies, antenna heights, path types, and time probability. In Recommendation ITU-R P.1546-6, in addition to these curves, losses are also determined by the terrain clearance angle correction from the receiver side and the correction for the height of the clutter surrounding the receiver.

ITU-R P.1546-6 Propagation Model.png

ITU-R P.1546-6 Propagation Model

The approach to fade margin calculation, taking into account location and time variability as well as large/small-scale and time fading standard deviations, is the same as described in the ITU-R P.1812 Propagation Model

Path Type

-    Land
-    Cold Sea
-    Warm Sea

Apply Terrain Clearance Angle Correction

This uses the terrain profile to adjust the field strength at the receive point for terrain blockage on non-line-of-sight paths.

Add Clutter Loss

Add clutter loss to path loss

Use Clutter Attenuation According to Rec. ITU-R P.1546-6

Calculation of clutter losses in accordance with Rec. ITU-R P.1546-6, depending on the height of clutter.
You can also manually set clutter loss for each clutter type based on your own data by entering the losses into the table.

Longley-Rice (ITM) Propagation Model v 1.2.2

The Longley-Rice propagation model, also known as the Irregular Terrain Model (ITM), is considered the industry standard for coverage prediction in North America. RadioPlanner 3.0 uses version 1.2.2 of the Irregular Terrain Model in PTP-mode.

Longley-Rice Propagation Model Parameters.png

Longley-Rice Propagation Model Parameters

Time, %

By choosing a time percentage (50%-99%, typically 50%, 90% or 95%), the calculated received power values are the power levels that will be exceeded at least that percentage of time. Set 50% if you want to completely exclude the influence of Time variability.

Situation, %

Situation (location) percentage, (50%-99%, typically 50%, 90% or 95%) indicates that a given power level will be exceeded in at least that percentage of locations for similar propagation paths. Set 50% if you want to completely exclude the influence of Situation variability.

Margin

Confidence margin. Since the received power level calculations are estimates, the prediction margin lets you specify a safety margin in dB so that you can be more confident your signal level estimate is indeed above the specified signal level.

Refractivity

Conductivity (S/m)

Dielectric Constant

Climate Zone

Antenna Polarization

Atmospheric refractivity, measured in N-Units

Conductivity of the ground over which the signal propagates (Siemens per meter)

The dielectric constant (relative ground permittivity)

The following Radio Climates can be selected:
-    Equatorial (Congo)
-    Continental Subtropical (Sudan)
-    Maritime Subtropical (West Coast of Africa)
-    Desert (Sahara)
-    Continental Temperate, common to large landmasses in the Temperate Zone
-    Maritime Temperate, over Land (United Kingdom and Continental West Coasts)
-    Maritime Temperate, over Sea

Antenna Polarization:  Horizontal / Vertical

Clutter loss

 

In the Longley-Rice propagation model, clutter loss for are entered manually directly into the table for each network.

Add clutter loss

Network type

Add clutter loss to path loss

Select the network for which the clutter loss applies

Okumura-Hata Propagation Model

This empirical model was developed by Hata and is based on Okumura’s experimental data taken in the Tokyo urban and suburban area. When calculating coverage using this model, you must determine which category the site location area belongs to: Urban Area, Suburban Area, or Open Area. Path loss is calculated using different formulas depending on the type of area.


-    Urban Area: Built up city or large town including buildings and houses with two or more stories, or large villages and tall trees,  green lands.
-    Suburban Area: Small town, village or highway scattered with trees and houses, some obstacles near the mobile set but not very congested and scattered industrial plants.
-    Open Area: No tall trees or buildings in the radiowaves path, open fields, land cleared for 300–400m ahead, very low congested area, no factories such as farm lands and rice fields.


Path loss is calculated using different formulas, depending on the type of area.

 

Okumura-Hata Propagation Model.png

Okumura-Hata Propagation Model

The approach to fade margin calculation, taking into account location and time variability as well as large/small-scale and time fading standard deviations, is the same as described in the ITU-R P.1812-6 Propagation Model.

Area Type

Select the area type:
-    By Clutter Data
-    Open 
-    Suburban
-    Urban

Network type

Select the network for which the additional clutter loss applies

In RadioPlanner 3.0, you can select one of these standard Okumura-Hata area types or choose “By Clutter Data” for automatic detection of Okumura-Hata area type based on clutter type. The correspondence table between clutter type and Okumura-Hata area type is shown below. When choosing this option, you can also use additional attenuation for different types of clutter.

RadioPlanner Clutter Type

Color

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Open / Rural

Water

Trees / Forest

Suburban

Urban

Dense Urban

Open areas in forest

Open areas in suburban

Open areas in uburban

2023-06-29_10-37-43.png

Okumura-Hata Area Type

Open

Open

Open

Suburban

Urban

Urban

Open

Suburban

Urban

3GPP TR 38.901 Propagation Model

This model is described in detail in 3GPP Tecnical Report 5G; Study on channel model for frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz (3GPP TR 38.901 version 17.0.0 Release 17; 2022-04)

3GPP TR 38.901 Propagation Model__.png

3GPP TR 38.901 Propagation Model

The approach to fade margin calculation, taking into account location and time variability also large/small-scale and time fading standard deviations, the same as described in the ITU-R P.1812 Propagation Model.

Area Type

Select the area type:
-    Rural Macro
-    Urban Macro
-    Urban Micro-Street Canyon

Area Study (Coverage Prediction) types

RadioPlanner 3.0 performs various types of area studies:


-    Received Power Uplink/Downlink
-    Best Server Uplink/Downlink
-    Area with Signal above Both the Base and Mobile Thresholds
-    C/(I+N) Ratio Uplink/Downlink
-    Maximum Throughput Uplink/Downlink
-    Maximum aggregated Throughput Downlink
-    Number of Servers Uplink/Downlink
-    Coverage Probability Uplink/Downlink
-    RSRP for LTE and 5G
-    RSRQ for LTE and 5G
-    Simulcast Delay Spread
-    Received Power with Simulcast Interference
-    Field Strength Downlink

 

The availability of a particular area study type is determined by the type of system chosen.

Received power Downlink/Uplink


Received power maps show those areas where a given signal power level is present at the receiver.

RadioPlanner Received Power Downlink  Parameters.png

Received Power Downlink Study Type Parameters

Number of Levels

Color

Values

Description

Use co-channel interference

Use adj-channel interference

Required Service C/(I+N) Ratio

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Received power level, dBm

Text field to describe signal level

Perform coverage calculation taking into account co-channel interference using frequency assignments for each sector.

Perform coverage calculation taking into account adjacent channel interference using parameters in network settings (Channel bandwidth and Adjacent Channel rejection) as well as frequency assignments for each sector.

Requred service C/(I+N) ratio, dB This is the minimum acceptable C/(I+N) ratio required by the receiver for “acceptable” performance. “Acceptable” can mean a variety of things in terms of subjective signal quality, so this number can be adjusted to represent systems of varying quality or marginal quality. An area with a C/(I+N) below the Required Service C/(I+N) ratio will be shown on the map as an interference zone.

For Mobile Unit No. 1 (portable), you can set from one to eight different levels of received signal to simulate different reception conditions (e.g., on street, inside a car, indoors).

 

For Mobile Unit No. 2 (mobile radio with an antenna on the roof of a car), only one signal level can be set. 


The interference calculation always takes into account the noise component, which depends on the noise bandwidth and receiver noise figure. These settings are entered in Noise and Interference in the Network system settings.

Received Power Uplink for P25 700 MHz network.png

Received Power Uplink Coverage Prediction for P25 700 MHz Network

Best Server Uplink/Downlink
 

The Best Server map shows the identity of the sector supplying the strongest received signal at each location. The minimum received signal level for calculating the Best Server is downlink/uplink Rx threshold. The sector color is defined in the sector parameters or can be assigned automatically.

Best Server Study Type Parameters

Apply Automatic Color Assignment

Assign colors to sectors in random order

Use Colors from sectors

Assigning colors to sectors from the sector parameters

Best Server Coverage Prediction for LTE Band 12 (700 MHz) Network.png

Best Server Coverage Prediction for LTE Band 12 (700 MHz) Network

Areas with Signal Levels Above Both the Base and Mobile Thresholds

This area study type displays a map showing locations where both the signal received by the mobile unit is above the downlink Rx  threshold and where the signal received by the base station sector from the mobile is above the uplink Rx threshold. This calculation can be performed for different conditions of use of Mobile Unit No. 1 (portable radio or UE), such as indoors, outdoors, and inside a car. Each condition of use has its own color and value of loss (margin) for signal penetration indicated in this form. For Mobile Unit No. 2, only outdoor calculation is performed.

Areas with Signal Levels Above Both the Base and Mobile Thresholds Study Type Parameters

Number of Levels

Color

Penetration Loss

Description

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Penetration loss, dB

Text field

Areas with Signal Levels Above Both the Base and Mobile Thresholds for P25 700 MHz network

Areas with Signal Levels Above Both the Base and Mobile Thresholds for P25 800 MHz network

C/(I+N) Ratio Downlink/Uplink


The carrier-to-interference+noise ratio (C/(I+N)) is an essential quantity used in assessing system performance and affecting frequency planning. RadioPlanner allows you to calculate and display areas with different downlink/uplink C/(I+N) values for interference on co-channel and adjacent channels.


Carrier-to-interference+noise ratio is calculated by first finding the strongest received signal power at each location, then calculating the sum of received signal powers from all other co-channel and adjacent sectors (taking into account adjacent channel attenuation) that also have relevant signal levels at that location. After finding the sum of interference, the carrier-to-interference+noise ratio is calculated.


The interference calculation always takes into account the noise component, which depends on noise bandwidth and receiver noise figure entered in Noise and Interference in Network system settings. The calculation of adjacent channel interference can be disabled to only take into account co-channel interference.

RadioPlanner C(I+N) Downlink Ratio Study Type Parameters.png

C/(I+N) Downlink Ratio Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Carrier-to-interference+noise ratio C/(I+N), dB

Text field

C I+N Downlink ratio for LoRaWAN network.png

C/(I+N) Downlink ratio for LoRaWAN network

Maximum Downlink / Uplink Throughput

This prediction type shows maximum cell throughput. 


For LTE/5G System Types, this study calculates MCS Index for each point based on predicted C/(I+N) from LTE/5G system parameters tab of Network. Throughput associated with MCS is determined using 3GPP specified formulas and tables. 

 

For Generic TRX System Type, this study calculates Throughput for each point based on predicted C/(I+N) from Adaptive Modulation Table in system parameters tab of Network.

RadioPlanner Maximum Downlink Throughput Study Type Parameters.png

Maximum Downlink Throughput Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Maximum Throughput, Mbps

Text field

Maximum Downlink Throughput Coverage Prediction for 5G CBRS N48 (3500 MHz) Network.png

Maximum Downlink Throughput Coverage Prediction for 5G CBRS N48 (3500 MHz) Network

Number of Servers Uplink/Downlink

This study indicates total number of sectors that provide a signal above Rx threshold at each location. This study type is often required when planning networks based on wireless IoT technologies such as LoRaWAN.

RadioPlanner Number of Servers Above Downlink Parameters.png

Number of Servers Above Downlink Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Maximum Number of Sectors

Color

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

Maximum number of displayed servers above uplink

Color indicating the appropriate number of sectors

Text field

Number of Servers Above Downlink for LoraWAN Network.png

Number of Servers Above Downlink for LoraWAN Network

Coverage Probability Uplink/Downlink

This area study shows the availability of service based on a Gaussian (“normal”) distribution in dB. The calculation determines the “fade margin” at each study location based on the received signal strength with respect to a receiver threshold. The percent reliability is then a lognormal distribution of the fade margin in dB. Interference and noise are not taken into account in the calculation. The values of standard deviations in the calculation are taken from the “Coverage Probability” parameters, while standard deviation values in propagation model parameters are ignored.

RadioPlanner Coverage Probability Parameters.png

Coverage Probability Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

σLN, dB

Lognormal large-scale (shadow) fading standard deviation, dB. This value depends on the digital terrain model (DTM) resolution and carrier frequency. Typical value 2-5 dB for modern DTMs.

σR, dB

σt, dB

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

Small-scale fading (Rayleigh) standard deviation, dB. Typically 7.5 dB

Time variability standart deviation, dB. At distances up to 50 km, the σt usually varies for between 2-3 dB (Land), and up to 9 dB for the Sea. See Table 3 in Recommendation ITU-R P.1406-2 "Propagation effects relating to terrestrial land mobile and broadcasting services in the VHF and UHF bands"

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Probability, %

Text field

Coverage Probability Coverage Prediction for P25 700 MHz Network.png

Coverage Probability Coverage Prediction for P25 700 MHz Network

Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP)

This study calculates the Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) from all resource elements of a cell at the remote UE receiver using system parameters of LTE and 5G networks (bandwidth, subcarrier spacing). The calculation can use a single-column antenna pattern for a sector if selected in LTE/5G sector Additional Options.

RSRP.png

RSRP Study Type Parameters

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), dBm

Text field

RSRP coverage prediction for 5G CBRS N48 (3500 MHz) Network.png

RSRP coverage prediction for 5G CBRS N48 (3500 MHz) Network

Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ)

This study calculates the Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) from all resource elements at the remote UE receiver using system parameters of LTE and 5G networks (bandwidth, subcarrier spacing, cell load, and C/(I+N) ratio). The calculation can use a single-column antenna pattern for a sector if selected in LTE/5G sector Additional Options.

RadioPlanner RSRQ Study Type Parameters.png

RSRQ Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), dB

Text field

RSRQ coverage prediction for 5G CBRS N48 (3500 MHz) Network.png

RSRQ coverage prediction for 5G CBRS N48 (3500 MHz) Network

Simulcast Delay Spread

This prediction is used for simulcast systems that transmit signals from multiple locations simultaneously on the same channel. Interference in the receiver will occur under certain conditions related to delay time between signals arriving at a given location and their relative power. The simulcast delay spread is calculated as follows:

The simulcast delay spread is calculated by considering only the six strongest signals at any grid analysis location. The results of the calculation are displayed in μs on the map.

Simulcast Delay Spread Study Type Parameters___.png

Simulcast Delay Spread Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Receiver Simulcast Capture Ratio

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

For delay spread studies, the delay is calculated and displayed only when the power of the strongest received signal and the power of the second strongest received signal are within the capture ratio of each other. Typical value 7-15 dB.

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Simulcast Delay Spread, μs

Text field

To reduce interference between simulcast transmitters, it can be useful to artificially delay the signal transmitted from a given location using Simultaneous Delay Offset entered in Advanced Sector Parameters. By carefully assigning offsets to different sectors, some control can be exercised over where interference occurs in simulcast system.

Simulcast Delay Spread Prediction for P25 700 MHz Simulcast Network_.png

Simulcast Delay Spread Prediction for P25 700 MHz Simulcast Network

Received Power Downlink with Simulcast Interference


Received power maps show areas where a given signal power level is present at mobile unit receiver. This prediction also takes into account interference due to simulcast. 

RadioPlanner Received Power with Simulcast Interference.png

Received Power with Simulcast Interference Downlink Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

Receiver Simulcast Capture Ratio

For delay spread studies, the delay is calculated and displayed only when the power of the strongest received signal and the power of the second strongest received signal are within the capture ratio of each other. Typical value 7-15 dB.

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Acceptable Simulcast Delay Spread, μs

Description

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Received power level, dBm

An area with a Simulcast Delay Spread higher of the acceptable one will be shown on the map as an interference zone. The interference zone can be painted with any color on the map, or made transparent by selecting white for it.

Text field

Received Power with Simulcast Interference Prediction for P25 700 MHz Simulcast Network__.

Received Power with Simulcast Interference Prediction for P25 700 MHz Public Safety Simulcast Network

Field Strength Downlink


Field Strength maps show areas where a given field strength level is present at receiver point. Note that field strength is not a function of receive antenna parameters.

Field Strength Study Type Parameters

Number of Levels

Color

Value

Description

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

Downlink Received Field Strength, dBμV/m

Text field

Field Strength Prediction for POCSAG Pager Network.png

Field Strength Prediction for POCSAG Pager Network

TalckOut and TalckBack

 

This area study type displays a map with the talk-out and talck-back (two-way) locations, talk-out only (downlink), talk-back only (uplink), and no coverage locations for mobile unit №1.

 RadioPlanner TalckOut and TalckBack Parameters.png

TalckOut and TalckBack Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Color

TalkOut and TalckBack

TalkOut

TalckBack

No Coverage

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

Color

Downlink and uplink coverage

Downlink coverage only

Uplink coverage only

No Coverage  (white color for transparent)

Text field

TalckOut and TalckBack Coverage Prediction.png

TalckOut and TalckBack Coverage Prediction

Coverage predictions for multiple networks

Number of Networks Downlink / Uplink

This prediction shows number of networks providing service at each calculation point for downlink or uplink. Calculation is performed for respective thresholds Rx of each network taken into account in calculation.

RadioPlanner Number of Networks Downlink S Parameters.png

Number of Networks Downlink Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

Maximum Number of Networks

Maximum number networks

Color

Description

Color indicating the number of networks

Text field

Number of Networks Downlink Coverage Prediction for LTE Band 12 and Band 2.png

Number of Networks Downlink Coverage Prediction for LTE Band 12 and Band 2

Maximum Aggregated Downlink / Uplink Throughput

This prediction type shows the total throughput at each point for all networks involved in the calculation.

RadioPlanner Maximum Aggregated Downlink Throughput Parameters.png

Maximum Aggregated Downlink Throughput Study Type Parameters

Mobile Unit (UE) №1/№2

Number of Levels

Color

Values

Description

Select the mobile device for which the calculation will be made

The number of levels (1-8)

Color level

 

Maximum Aggregated Throughput, Mbps

Text field

Maximum Aggregated Downlink Throughput Coverage Prediction for LTE Band 12 and Band 2.png

Maximum Aggregated Downlink Throughput Coverage Prediction for LTE Band 12 and Band 2

Point Analysis

In this panel, you can see detailed results of received signal power downlink and uplink calculation at any point as well as interference levels on co-channel and adjacent channels. The path profile is a vertical section of terrain between site and mobile unit with elevations and clutter information. Clutter height in path profile is determined by height for each clutter type set in Geo Data menu.


Click on “Point Analysis” and then find the required sector in the interface tree and click on it (do not confuse it with the activity tag). A path profile from the sector to the current point on the map will appear. You can change the current point on the map by clicking on the desired location.


The path profile shows the height of the antenna radiation center of the selected sector and mobile unit, as well as the Fresnel zone for the radio beam, loss in free space, diffraction loss due to terrain, and loss on clutter surrounding mobile unit.

Point Analysis_.png

Point Analysis

You can select a mobile unit (No. 1 or No. 2) whose parameters will be taken into account in calculations.


Under the path profile, a table appears with results of calculating power levels of downlink and uplink channels for selected sector (highlighted in color in table) and other sectors. Only sectors marked as active are included in calculation. For a sector to appear in table, received signal level must be greater than corresponding downlink or uplink Rx Threshold (see Network menu). Values in table can be sorted in ascending or descending order by clicking on corresponding field in table header.


The selected sector is considered to have a useful signal; signals from sectors with same frequency are considered co-channel interference, and signals from sectors whose frequencies are adjacent to selected sector are considered interference from adjacent channels. With this in mind, the table shows the calculated values of the interference level, taking into account noise and interference in the co-channel and adjacent channel.

Fixed Wireless Access

RadioPlanner 3.0 allows you to plan Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) and Internet of Things (IoT) networks such as LoRa, SigFox, and others.


Users can perform calculations for multiple Customer Premises Equipment (CPEs) or IoT sensors, each with their own individual parameters (antenna height, antenna gain, antenna pattern, transmitter power, cable loss, and penetration loss).
 

In the Fixed Wireless Access panel, users can:


1.    Import CPEs/Sensors from a CSV file or manually create new CPEs/Sensors on the map.
2.    Use multiple types of CPE/Sensor equipment.
3.    Adjust the antenna height for an individual CPE/Sensor or multiple CPEs in the table.
4.    Manually or automatically assign CPEs/Sensors to Base Station (BS) sectors based on various criteria.
5.    View path profiles from the selected CPEs/Sensors to nearby base stations.
6.    Generate a single network report or an aggregate throughput summary report for CPEs/Sensors in Excel.

 

To display the CPE and the link to the assigned BS on the base map, a separate layer has been created in ‘Map Layers’. Here, users can modify the CPE icon and line width. This layer can be saved in HTML, PNG, and KMZ coverage files.

Fixed Wireless Access RadioPlanner.png

Fixed Wireless Access panel

Add.png
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Add a CPE site as a copy of selected one

Remove selected CPE site (full row has to be selected)

Import a list of CPE sites from CSV file

Position the map with CPE site at the center of the screen

Edit CPE Equipment

Automatic BS assignment for all CPEs. The selection criterion is defined in the lower right part of the panel.

Microsoft Excel.png

Excel reports:
-    Full report on the selected network in Excel
-    Aggregate Bandwidth Summary Report in Excel (LTE/5G only)

CPE Name

CPE (End-device) name or ID

Latitude

CPE latitude in any of the formats that RadioPlanner allows (see the Setup menu)

Longitude

CPE longitude in any of the formats that RadioPlanner allows (see the Setup menu)

Azimuth

CPE antenna direction azimuth

Site elevation

Site elevation

CSV file format with CPE input data:


CPE/Sensor;Lat;Lon; Ant. height, m

for example:


CPE 001;44.96965602;-123.0091095;1.5
......
CPE 007;44.93005057;-123.0273056;3

CPE Equipment Editor

Add.png

Radio equipment

Network

Use this network

Tx power, W

Ant. gain, dBi

Cable loss, dB

Penetration loss, dB

create antenna pattern.png

Add a new CPE type with the same parameters as selected CPE

Remove the CPE

CPE Type (model)

Network

Select the checkbox if the CPE supports the selected network

CPE transmitter power, W

CPE antenna gain, dBi

CPE cable loss, dB

Penetration loss into the building where the CPE is installed, dB

Load MSI antenna pattern file

Create antenna pattern using a reference model in accordance with Rec. ITU-R F.1336-5

The CPE equipment editor allows you to synthesize an antenna pattern using a reference model in accordance with Rec. ITU-R F.1336-5.

Creation of antenna pattern using a reference model in accordance with Rec. ITU-R F.1336-5

Creation of antenna pattern using a reference model in accordance with Rec. ITU-R F.1336-5

3 dB beamwidth in the azimuth plane (degree)

3 dB beamwidth in the elevation plane (degree)

Beam tilt (degree)

Pattern Type:
-    Peak side-lobe
-    Average side-lobe

Antenna Type
-    Typical antenna
-    Improved side-lobe performance antenna 

3 dB beamwidth in the azimuth plane (degree)

3 dB beamwidth in the elevation plane (degree)

Beam tilt (degree)

Type of antenna pattern approximation:
-    on the peaks (maximums) of the side lobes
-    the average level of the side lobes

Antenna Type
-    Typical antenna
-    Improved side-lobe performance antenna

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Assignment BS sectors by Best Server

Assign BS sector manually

Automatic BS assignment for selected CPE in below selected network. The selection criterion is defined in the lower right part of the panel.

Reset sector assignments

Assignment of BS sectors according to the Best Server criterion

Assignment BS sectors by best SINR

Assignment of BS sectors based on the best SINR criterion

The calculation of CPE - BS links is carried out according to the parameters specified in the “Propagation Model” menu. If the calculation takes into account clutter losses in accordance with Recommendations ITU-R P.1812/1546, these losses are determined for each end device taking into account the height of its antenna above ground level. The calculation can also take into account building penetration losses for each CPE/end device. The output report for each CPE or end device will display the received downlink/uplink power, C/(I+N) ratio, modulation type, maximum throughput, and other parameters.

General Procedure for Working in the Fixed Wireless Access Menu:

 


1. Load a list of CPEs from a CSV file or create a CPE manually using the right mouse button in the context menu. The CSV file format is described above. If you already have CPEs in your table, then when importing from a CSV file, new ones will appear at the end of the table.


2. Create one or more types of CPE equipment in the "Edit CPE Equipment" menu. Please note that for one type of CPE equipment, parameters for different networks can be specified.


3. Specify the type of equipment for each CPE in the table. To do this, point to the desired cell with the equipment and select the required equipment from the list that appears. You can select several cells in the table at once and set one type of equipment for them.


4. If your CSV file did not include data on antenna heights, or you created the CPE manually on the map, then indicate the antenna heights in the appropriate cells of the table. Here, it is also possible to select several cells at once and enter the same height for these cells.


5. If you want to assign BS sectors for all CPEs at once automatically, then select the criterion by which the assignment will be made - best server or best SINR - and click on the "Assign BS sectors for all CPE" button. After this, you will be asked to select a network for which the calculation and assignment of BS sectors will be carried out, and then automatic assignment will be performed. If there is only one network in the project, then automatic assignment will occur immediately. Please note that even if the CPE operates in different networks, it can be assigned and directed only to one BS site (the sectors are, of course, different). CPEs that do not have an assigned BS sector are displayed in the table in faded font.


6. If you want to view the path profile from the CPE to the BS sector or manually assign/reassign the BS sector, then first select the CPE you need in the main table, then select the desired network on the right and click on the "Assign BS Sector Manually" tool. In the window that opens with the path profile, you can select the sector you need, view the main calculation results, and assign/reassign the selected BS sector.


7. After the sector assignments have been completed for all CPEs, you can obtain the calculation results in Excel "Full report on the selected network in Excel" for one network or for several networks "Aggregate Bandwidth Summary Report in Excel (LTE/5G only)" . Only those networks that are marked in the main left menu “Networks” will be taken into account.


8. If the calculation results do not satisfy you, then change the parameters of the CPE (antenna height, equipment type, etc.) and perform the calculation again, and so on, until you get the desired result.

Full report on the selected network in Excel.png

Full report on the selected network in Excel

Aggregate Bandwidth Summary Report in Excel (LTE-5G only).png

Aggregate Bandwidth Summary Report in Excel (LTE/5G only)

Coverage prediction for Fixed Wireless Access network

RadioPlanner 3.0 enables the display of coverage predictions for a Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) network or an IoT network (such as LoRaWAN) on a map. The algorithm used to calculate coverage for CPEs or IoT sensors differs from the one used for mobile units. Ths difference stems from the fact that while calculating mobile network coverage, the characteristics of one of two typical mobile units (UE1 or UE2) are considered. However, when calculating FWA coverage, the individual characteristics of each CPE or sensor are taken into account. These include antenna height, antenna gain, antenna pattern, transmitter power, losses in the cable, and building penetration losses. As a result, coverage prediction results are more accurate.

Upon calculation, a small circle will appear at the location of each CPE or sensor. The color of this circle will correspond to the result of the selected study type. The study type can be chosen from the menu of the corresponding network, and the calculation can be initiated there using a special tool ‘Calculate FWA Coverage’.


If a CPE/Sensor has an assigned BS sector, then the coverage calculation will be performed for this BS sector. If the CPE/Sensor does not have an assigned BS sector, then the coverage calculation will be performed for the sector with the best power at the receiver (Best Server).


When you hover your mouse over the CPE circle, the equipment parameters and calculation results will be displayed on the Legend.
 

Coverage prediction for Fixed Wireless Access network.png

Coverage prediction for Fixed Wireless Access network

Miscellaneous Studies
Area study boundary

You can specify the area on which the coverage area will be cropped. The boundaries of a rectangular area can be set manually, or you can upload an arbitrary area in KML format.

U.S. community and county boundary in KML format is available on FCC website https://www.fcc.gov/media/radio/us-community-boundary-overlays-kml

study boundary.png

Area study boundary

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Use for calculation

Import polygon from KML file

Define area as a rectangle

Delete polygon

Crop the coverage at the area boundary

Coverage prediction based on area study boundaries.png

Coverage prediction based on area study boundaries

Route Study

Coming soon.

Measurement Results Analysis and Propagation Model Tuning

RadioPlanner 3.0 allows you to tune clutter loss for a propagation model by comparing measurements with predicted Rx power values. Loading, preprocessing and analysis of measurement file for each sector is performed in Sector parameters panel.

Measurement Results Analysis Along a Route

Import of measurement data from a CSV file

Export of measurement data to a CSV file

Delete all measurement points

First prepare a file of received power levels for required site sector. The measurement file is a CSV format file with each line containing three parameters: level of measured signal from one sector in dBm; geographical latitude; geographic longitude. The separator of parameter values is semicolon. Formats for representation of geographic coordinates are Hemisphere Degrees SECOND MINUTES (N35 36 23.8) or HEM DECIMAL DEGREES (N12.34567).

Sample Measurement File

Upload measurement file to appropriate sector and perform preliminary processing if necessary:

On the results scatter-plot, measurement levels are indicated in black, while predicted values are indicated in a color corresponding to the clutter type at a given point (e.g., yellow for open space). The x-axis displays the waypoint numbers. When hovering the cursor over the graph, calculated and measured levels, level difference, distance to the site (in kilometers), and clutter type are displayed. When you click on the plot, a context menu appears, in which you can delete a point with the measurement result.

 

Below the plot is a table that displays the number of points, mean error, standard deviation of error, and recommended loss values for different clutter types that will result in an average error of zero. Clicking the “Apply Tuned Clutter Losses to Propagation Model” button changes the clutter loss values in the “Propagation Model” menu and recalculates the plot point values based on the tuned loss values. To assess the impact of the new clutter loss values on coverage calculation results, coverage must be recalculated.

 

A decision is made regarding the need to tune previously used clutter loss values in the propagation model based on an analysis of results obtained for different clutter types and sectors.

Min/Max Signal Level

Min/Max Distance to TX

Min/Max Sector Angle

Minimum Gap

Reverse table

Add New Layer with Measurement Points

Limit the measurement points by received power level from the site

Limit the measurement points by distance from the site

Limit the measurement points by azimuth from the site

Perform measurement points power level averaging within a given distance

Change the order of measurement points in the route (the last point becomes the first, the penultimate point becomes the second, and so on)

Add a custom measurement layer to the map with averaging within the specified minimum distance. The data in the table does not change. The resulting layer will appear among the user layers; the layer name will determinate to the site name and sector direction.

Saving the Coverage Calculation Result

Coverage prediction result can be saved as:


-    Image file in PNG format
-    KMZ file 
-    Image file in GeoTiff format
-    Interactive web page in HTML format
-    Text CSV file - a set of points with coordinates and a received power / a field strength
-    Exchange file MapInfo (MIF + MID) - a set of squares with the attribute as received power / a field strength

Save the map as a PNG image - Save result of coverage calculation as image file in *.png format. Before saving image, you can select area of saved coverage using frame (you can move both border of frame and map itself). When saving image, you also select its resolution. Resolution may correspond with current size or be two or four times larger. The better resolution, larger size of saved file. 
Maximum size of bitmap image is approximately 5400x4400 pixels; file size in *.png format is about 10 MB. If Legend is active, it will appear in upper left corner of saved image.


Save coordinates (*.txt file): Saves text file with same name as image file. Coordinates of corners of image are written into text file.

Selecting the area and resolution of the saved image

Save the map as a WEB page - Save the map as a WEB page - Save result of calculation as interactive webpage. Application allows user to select location and name of directory where result is saved. The index.html file (page script), bs.png file (site icon), and folder with radio coverage tile pyramid {ZOOM}/{X}/{Y} will be saved to specified directory. To open webpage, open index.html file using browser (Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.). Specified folder with script and tile pyramid can be archived and forwarded to customer.
Resulting webpage can also be placed on web server for viewing in any browser and operating system (Windows, Mac, IOS, Android, Linux). This webpage allows you to choose base map from different base maps; change zoom; view basic data from legend; display scale and current coordinates of cursor.
For the webpage to function, you’ll need access to the internet as base maps are downloaded from corresponding resources. A folder with a tiles pyramid can be connected to any GIS that supports working with tiles, allowing you to demonstrate coverage as a layer on any GIS (QGIS, MapInfo, ArcGIS, SAS.Planet, etc.).

RadioPlanner save as HTML.png

Calculation result in the form of HTML page

 

Save the map as a KMZ file - Save calculation result as structured KMZ file for Google Earth. If Legend is active, it will appear in upper left corner of Google Earth.

KMZ_.png

Calculation result in the form of KMZ

 

Save the map as a GeoTIFF file - Save calculation result without a base map as a georeferenced file in geotiff format

Save the coverage in GIS format – Save the coverage in Text CSV file or Exchange file MapInfo (MIF + MID). Coverage export to these vector formats is necessary for those users who use the coverage for further analysis in various GIS applications.
When saving the file, you will need to specify the space grid with which the result will be saved.


CSV file format 


Each line contains three parameters: geographical latitude; geographic longitude; strongest signal level (Rx power level or field strength); site name; sector azimuth. The separator of parameter values is a semicolon. Formats for geographic coordinates: Degrees Minutes Second (35 36 23.8) or Decimal Degrees (12.34567).

CSV file sample .png

CSV file sample 

MIF MapInfo file


MIF coverage file is a standard MapInfo exchange file that can be opened in any GIS application.

MIF Mapinfo Coverage file as a layer in QGIS.png

MIF Mapinfo Coverage file as a layer in QGIS

MIF Attribute Table.png

MIF Attribute Table

Coverage Prediction Comparison

RadioPlanner 3.0 allows you to compare results of current coverage prediction with previously performed predictions. This allows you to evaluate the impact on coverage by changing various site parameters, propagation model, etc. 
To add a performed calculation to comparison, click on the Add Coverage to Compare button on top toolbar. When you go to Compare Coverage menu of main toolbar, this calculation result will be located on left side of screen while result of current coverage calculation will be displayed on right side. If Legend is enabled, it will display calculation parameters that mouse pointer is currently over.

Coverage Prediction Comparison

You can add multiple calculations to comparison and their names will appear in tree-view interface under Compare Coverage. When adding a calculation to comparison, RadioPlanner saves all calculation matrices so for large calculations it can take a long time and take up a lot of hard disk space. Manage maps in left and right panels (map shift and zoom) independently of each other. This allows you to compare two results of coverage calculation in detail. To rename a calculation in tree-view interface, double-click on it and rename it. To delete an unnecessary calculation, click on it and press Delete button on keyboard. When closing RadioPlanner, calculations added to comparison are not saved.

Reports

In the "Reports" menu, you can create different types of project reports - network configuration report, propagation model report, area survey type, and active sites configuration report.
You can also create a report on population coverage (currently only for broadcasting - see the corresponding section of this User Manual).
All types of reports open directly in Excel.

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Reports menu

Propagation Model, Network, Area Study Report

Open report in Microsoft Excel

Report in Microsoft Excel

Base station/Transmitter report

Open active site configuration in Microsoft Excel

Excel tx.png

Sites configuration report sample in Microsoft Excel

 

Population Coverage

Open population coverage report in Microsoft Excel

Import population data from CSV file

Delete population data

Noise-Adjusted Faded Performance Threshold Calculator

The influence of man-made noise cannot be ignored in the VHF and UHF frequency bands where most professional mobile radio communication systems operate.

The calculator built into the software determines the Noise-Adjusted Faded Performance Threshold for various environmental conditions and frequencies.

The calculations take into account Delivered Audio Quality (DAQ) according to the methodology described in the TIA TSB-88.1 recommendation. The typical parameters of the receiver-demodulator of all land mobile radio systems are built into the calculator - data is taken from Table A1 “Projected VCPC Parameters for Different DAQs” TIA TSB-88.1-D. Next, a Noise-Adjusted Faded Performance Threshold is calculated, taking into account one of the three research reports for different categories of land cover:

  1. Recommendation ITU-R P.372-13 "Radio noise" (50-250 MHz)

  2. OFCOM MMN measurement (AY4119) 2003 (50-1000 MHz)

  3. Data from TIA TSB-88.2-D Part 2: Propagation and Noise (162 MHz)

Noise-Adjusted Faded Performance Threshold Calculation.png

Noise-Adjusted Faded Performance Threshold Calculation

 

To calculate the Noise-Adjusted Faded Performance Threshold, the user must specify:

1. Reference receiver sensitivity in dBm or µV - This is usually given in the technical specification as receiver sensitivity with 12 dB SINAD for analog systems or with BER = 5% for digital systems.

2. Type of land mobile radio

3. DAQ required, usually DAQ = 3.0 or 3.4

4. Select the research report on which the calculation will be based and the environmental category

5. Specify the carrier frequency.

 

After changing any field of source data, the calculation is performed automatically. If an empty field appears as a result of the calculation, this means that incorrect data has been entered on receiving equipment (not physically feasible) or man-made noise graphs are beyond the frequencies at which the studies were performed.

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